Some recently unearthed masterpieces from J M W Turner and John Constable‘s visits to Nevada. The fountains at the Bellagio are older than I thought! See below for a short explanation of neural style transfer.


Turner (left) and Constable must have sat side-by-side at the Bellagio. It was a good compromise between Turner’s love of the sea and Constable’s love of musically synced fountains.

Constable later went up to Tahoe and was rightly inspired by the scenery.


Lake Tahoe. I don’t think Constable’s very good at doing skies when there aren’t many clouds.

Neural style transfer

Neural style transfer uses three images: C, a content image, S, a style image and G, a generated image (which starts as C + noise). The loss function combines a content loss and a style loss. The content loss compares the pixel values of C and G at each layer of a pre-trained CNN (here VGG-19). This compares the similarity of each image’s content. The style loss compares the ratio of different filter activations in G and S. This compares the look and feel of the image. The pixels of G are altered by gradient descent to minimise the combined loss.

The content images I used were The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, Turner’s 1838 oil painting showing the inevitable march of progress and Constable’s 1820 Salisbury Cathedral from Lower Marsh Close. I accidentally used Constable’s worst painting of Salisbury.


Source (by Constable), Content (by me), Generated


Source (by Turner), Content (by me), Generated